BOOK SERIALISATION
An Analysis
The Sepoy Rebellion of 1857-59

(The first thirteen chapters of this book were serialised in DJ from July 1999 till October last year. This analysis covers the first 150 pages, and is now being serialised in DJ).

Columnist AH AMIN re-interprets the so-called 1857 Indian Mutiny.

Deliberate British bias against Hindustani Hindus/Mussulmans and tribal Pathans recruitment

The post-1857 period witnessed a deliberate British bias in recruiting “Hindustani Mussulmans” who they viewed as the principal leaders of 1857. We have seen that the army was transformed from a Hindu (as well as Hindustani dominated) army to a Punjabi dominated army by 1914. After 1897 this bias was extended to the tribal area Pathans also. Initially this policy was not as deliberate as it seemed. The main factor in this policy's adoption was Lord Roberts who became the Commander in Chief India in 1885 and continued to be so till April 1893. Two factors influenced Robert's bias against “Hindustani Muslims” and “Hindus”. First was his initial posting to Peshawar where he developed a liking for the Pathan as well as the Punjabi Muslims. The second factor was his personal participation in the rebellion of 1857. There is a misconception in many quarters and specially in Pakistan that the British used Muslim soldiers and particularly Punjabi Muslim soldiers to conquer India. Thus in a book recently published a Pakistani scholar states “The Punjabis went on to contribute manpower and logistic support for imperialist conflicts on the northwest frontier and also helped Britain conquer and police far flung overseas territories. About half the British Indian Army came to be recruited from the Punjab; the British were fond of calling the people of this province “the martial races of India629”. This statement is only partially true. India was conquered before 1849 and Afghanistan chastised in 1842 long before the Punjabis were recruited by the British. As earlier discussed in 1883 three years after the second Afghan War had ended the Punjabis constituted just 92 companies of the total 352 companies of Indian infantry. The prime British motivation in recruiting Punjabi Muslims was the “Reliability Factor” which they could not ensure in recruiting the Hindu, the Sindhi, Baloch, the Transfrontier Pathan or even the Hindustani Muslims. Philip Mason praised the Punjabi Muslim reliability in First World War in the following words: “A faint question mark hung over the Pathan throughout the war but the Punjabi Muslims were as steady as a rock”630 the reason for “Punjabi Reliability” was twofold. The first was British achievement in enabling the Punjab for the first time in 150 years of its pre-British history for becoming prosperous by virtue of uninterrupted peace and stability, building of canals, roads etc. The second was the Sikh Muslim divide in Punjab which was far more radical than the Hindu Muslim divide in remaining parts of India. Even in Punjab the British recruitment was selective i.e. only in areas north of Chenab since the remaining area was prosperous by virtue of canal irrigated lands and not really interested in joining the Indian Army! We have already discussed that the anti- Hiindustani bias of the British had far more to do with political reliability as implemented as a policy, however, late by Roberts whose anti-Hindustani bias was essentially based on his experiences in Punjab, Frontier, Delhi and Lucknow in the period 1857-58. This fact was admitted by Philip Mason631 openly and has already been discussed under the heading of “Martial Races Theory”. We have earlier analysed that Lord Roberts played crucial role in the anti-Hindustani bias in army recruitment. But it would be unfair to earmark Robert as the only culprit. The Eden Commission Report of 1879 stated that632; the UP Muslims were too dangerous for recruitment in the Army. The report further explained this point by stating that “the lower stratum of the Muhammadan urban population, the dispossessed landholders (many of whom were Muslims), the predatory classes, and perhaps the cadets of old Muhammadan families were the only sections of the people who dislike British rule. Thus by 1914 as we have already discussed the army was a highly Punjabised (although not Muslim majority by any definition) organisation. This British perception was not individual or held by civilians but even by historians writing in official histories published after the First world war. Thus an official British historian wrote “After the mutiny, the Hindustani Sepoy — hitherto the main stay of the Bengal Army — was condemned in the mass; the ensuring experiment of recruiting from the lower classes proved disastrous; and the need for efficiency, financial considerations and the policy of maintaining a definite proportion of British to Indian troops led more and more to recruitment of the material considered best633. This bias was not just confined to Hindustanis but also to the Tribal Pathans who were condemned as politically unreliable (and thus not suitably martial as per the British Colonial definition!) by the same historian for having risen against the British in 1897, as a result of which the Britishers were forced to mobilise nearly 70,000 troops 634. The emphasis on the words “material considered best” was in other words a veiled reference to material considered most reliable. “Reliability” and not merely “Martial Qualities” was the British standard in recruiting for the Army. We cannot blame the British for doing what was in their best interest. But we can certainly blame those who maintained the same policy in the post-1947 Pakistan Army. Had more Bengalis Sindhis and Baloch been recruited many problems of Pakistan's history may never even have occurred. Even if this was not done, by merely giving them due political representation, many problems could have been avoided. The British perceptions regarding reliability were amply proved in the First World War. The British premise about “Reliability” of the Punjabi troops proved to be correct to the dot. This is true both for Sikhs and Punjabi Muslims. (The Punjabis cannot be blamed for this since the British gave Punjab the stability and prosperity that it had never known since 1698. Unfortunately this prosperity reduced political awareness of an all India level in the Province. But this was true only for the north of Chenab area of the Punjab only from where most of the Punjabi Muslim soldiers were recruited. The areas between Chenab and Sutlej still took active part in the 1919 agitation which was a radical departure from Punjab Loyalty of “1857”). The only serious incidents of mutiny/insubordination in the Indian Army occured as we have earlier discussed in the Hindustani/Ranghar or in the Tribal Area Pathan units, and specially in the Afridi units! In 1919 the final seal on the issue of tribal area Pathan was imposed once the Waziristan Militia deserted en masse635!

How the Calculation was Made

So-called British experts like Michael Edwardes and many other “Bhagwans” and “Thekedars” made highly exaggerated statements about Sepoy strength in 1857. Michael Edwardes managed to fit 30,000 people in the 600 yards position (as shown by British Official Map of the battle in Forrests Mutiny Papers) at Battle of Badli Ki Serai fought a little north of Delhi in 1857! It was difficult thus to calculate sepoy strength and it took about two decades to arrive at an assessment. The exercise involved two distinct activities i.e calculating through tables and visualising the process through hypothetical maps :—

  

STEP ONE:--

REGULAR INFANTRY UNITS

PRE REBELLION UNIT LOCATIONS:

SER NO

UNIT

PRE REBELLION LOCATION

BEHAVIOUR IN 1857

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

 

1 NI

2 NI

3 NI

4 NI

5 NI

6 NI

7 NI

8 NI

9 NI

10 NI

11 NI

12 NI

13 NI

14 NI

15 NI

16 NI

17 NI

18 NI

19 NI

20 NI

21 NI

22 NI

23 NI

24 NI

25 NI

26 NI

27 NI

28 NI

29 NI

30 NI

31 NI

32 NI

33 NI

34 NI

35 NI

36 NI

37 NI

38 NI

39 NI

40 NI

41 NI

42 NI

43 NI

44 NI

45 NI

46 NI

47 NI

48 NI

49 NI

50 NI

51 NI

52 NI

53 NI

54 NI

55 NI

56 NI

57 NI

58 NI

59 NI

60 NI

61 NI

62 NI

CAWNPORE & SURROUNDING- DOAB/AGRA(1)

BARRACKPORE,BERHAMPUR-         BENGAL (1)

PHILLOR-LUDHIANA-                          PUNJAB (1)

NURPUR-KANGRA-                               PUNJAB (2)

AMBALA-                                               PUNJAB  (3)

ALLAHABAD-                                 DOAB/AGRA (2)

DINAPUR-                                                   BIHAR (1)

DINAPUR-                                                   BIHAR (2)

ALIGARH AND SURROUNDING- DOAB/AGRA (3)

FATEHGARH-                                  DOAB/AGRA (4)

MEERUT-                                          DOAB/AGRA(5)

JHANSI-NOWGONG-             CENTRAL INDIA (1)

LUCKNOW-                                                 OUDH (1)

JHELUM-                                                  PUNJAB (4)

NASEERABAD-                              RAJPUTANA (1)

LAHORE-                                                 PUNJAB ( 5)

AZAMGARH-                      BENARES REGION (1)

BAREILLY-                              ROHAILKHAND (1)

BERHAMPUR-                                       BENGAL (2)

MEERUT-                                         DOAB/AGRA(6)

PESHAWAR-                                            PUNJAB (6)

FAIZABAD-                                                 OUDH (2)

MHOW-                                    CENTRAL INDIA (2)

PESHAWAR-                                           PUNJAB (7)

BENARES-                                            BENARES (2)

LAHORE-                                                 PUNJAB (8)

PESHAWAR-                                           PUNJAB (9)

SHAHJAHANPUR-                   ROHAILKHAND (2)

MORADABAD-                        ROHAILKHAND (3)

NASEERABAD-                              RAJPUTANA (2)

SAUGOR-                                 CENTRAL INDIA (3)

ORRISSA-                                                BENGAL (3)

HOSHIARPUR-                                     PUNJAB ( 10)

BARRACKPUR-CHITAGONG               BENGAL (4)

SIALKOT-GUJRANWALA-JHANG-    PUNJAB(11)

JULLUNDHUR-                                     PUNJAB (12)

BENARES-                           BENARES REGION (3)

DELHI-                                       DELHI REGION (1)

JHELUM-                                                 PUNJAB(13)

DINAPUR-                                                    BIHAR(3)

SITAPUR-MULLAON-                                OUDH(3)

SAUGOR-                                 CENTRAL INDIA (4)

BARRACKPORE-DUM DUM-               BENGAL(5)

AGRA-                                             DOAB /AGRA(7)

FEROZPUR-                                            PUNJAB(14)

SIALKOT-                                                PUNJAB(15)

MIRZAPUR-                                           BENARES(4)

LUCKNOW-                                                  OUDH(4)

LAHORE-                                                 PUNJAB(16)

NAGODE-                                 CENTRAL INDIA(5)

PESHAWAR-                                           PUNJAB(17)

JUBBULPUR-                           CENTRAL INDIA(6)

CAWNPORE-                                   AGRA /DOAB (8)

DELHI-                                        DELHI REGION(2)

MARDAN-                                              PUNJAB(18)

CAWNPORE-                                   AGRA /DOAB(9)

FEROZPUR-                                              PUNJAB(19)

RAWALPINDI                                          PUNJAB(20)

AMRITSAR                                               PUNJAB(21)

AMBALA-                                                 PUNJAB(22)

JULLUNDHUR-                                        PUNJAB(23)

MULTAN-                                                PUNJAB(24)                                     

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

DISBANDED

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

DISBANDED

DISBANDED/DESTROYED

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

PART REBELLED/LOYAL

REBELLED-DESTROYED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

DISBANDED/DESTROYED

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

DISBANDED

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

DISBANDED

DISBANDED/DESTROYED

DISBANDED/DESTROYED

DISBANDED/DESTROYED

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

PART REBELLED/LOYAL

LOYAL BUT DISARMED

DISBANDED

DISBANDED

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

DISBANDED

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

DISBANDED

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

PART REBELLED/LOYAL

DISBANDED

DISBANDED

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED -DESTROYED

LOYAL-SENT TO CHINA

PART REBELLED/LOYAL

DISBANDED

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

DISBANDED/DESTROYED

PART REBELLED/LOYAL

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

REBELLED/DESTROYED

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

 DISBANDED/DESTROYED

DISARMED/DISBANDED

DISBANDED/DESTROYED

PARTREBELLED/DISBANDED

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

DESTROYED

STEP ONE:--

REGULAR INFANTRY UNITS

PRE REBELLION UNIT LOCATIONS: (CONTINUED)

SER NO

UNIT

PRE REBELLION LOCATION

BEHAVIOUR IN 1857

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

63 NI

64 NI

65 NI

66 NI (GURKHA)

67 NI

68 NI

69 NI

70 NI

71 NI

72 NI

73 NI

74 NI

BERHAMPUR                                             BENGAL(6)

PESHAWAR-                                            PUNJAB(25)

GHAZIPUR-                                             BENARES(5)

ALMORA-                                  ROHAILKHAND(4)

AGRA-                                              DOAB-AGRA(10)

BAREILLY-                                  ROHAILKHAND(5)

MULTAN-                                                PUNJAB (26)

BERHAMPUR-CALCUTTA                   BENGAL (7)

LUCKNOW-                                                  OUDH ( 5 )

NEEMUCH-                                         RAJPUTANA(3)

DACCA-JELPIGURI-                               BENGAL(8)

DELHI-                                                           DELHI (3)

 

DISBANDED

DISBANDED/DESTROYED

 LOYAL BUT DISARMED

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

DISBANDED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

DESTROYED

DISARMED-LOYAL

PART REBELLED/LOYAL

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

REBELLED-DISBANDED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

 

SUMMARY OF THE ABOVE

PUNJAB

DELHI

DOAB

AGRA

OUDH &

ROHAIL

KHAND

BENARES

BIHAR

BENGAL

CENTRAL

INDIA

RAJPUTANA

3 NI

4 NI

5 NI

14 NI

16 NI

21 NI

24 NI

26 NI

27 NI

33 NI

35 NI

36 NI

39 NI

45 NI

46 NI

49 NI

51 NI

55 NI

57 NI

58 NI

59 NI

60 NI

61 NI

62 NI

64 NI

69 NI

38 NI

54 NI

74 NI

1 NI

6 NI

9 NI

10 NI

11 NI

20 NI

44 NI

53 NI

56 NI

67 NI

13 NI

18 NI

22 NI

28 NI

29 NI

41 NI

48 NI

66 NI

68 NI

71 NI

17 NI

25 NI

37 NI

47 NI

65 NI

 

2 NI

7 NI

8 NI

19 NI

32 NI

34 NI

40 NI

43 NI

63 NI

70 NI

73 NI

12 NI

23 NI

31 NI

42 NI

50 NI

52 NI

15 NI

30 NI

72 NI

26 UNITS

3

UNITS

10

UNITS

10

UNITS

5

UNITS

11

UNITS

9

UNITS

STEP TWO

IRREGULAR INFANTRY UNITS

SER NO

UNIT

PRE REBELLION LOCATION

BEHAVIOUR IN 1857

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

SHEKHAWATEE

1ST SYLHET INF

2ND SYLHET INF

1ST ASSAM INF

2ND ASSAM INF

CALCUTTA NATIVE  MILITIA

CUTTACK LEGION

RAMGARH LIGHT INFANTRY

LUDHIANA REGIMENT

FEROZPUR REGIMENT

1ST OUDH IRREGULAR INF

2ND OUDH IRREGULAR INF

3RD OUDH IRREGULAR INF

4TH OUDH IRREGULAR INF

5TH OUDH IRREGULAR INF

6TH OUDH IRREGULAR INF

7TH OUDH IRREGULAR INF

8TH OUDH IRREGULAR INF

9TH OUDH IRREGULAR INF

10TH OUDH IRREGULAR INF

KUMAON BATTALION

SIRMOOR BATTALION

HARIANA LIGHT INFANTRY

NUSSEEREE BATTALION

KALAT I GHILZAI REGT

1ST PUNJAB INFANTRY

2ND PUNJAB INFANTRY

3RD PUNJAB INFANTRY

4TH PUNJAB INFANTRY

5TH PUNJAB INFANTRY

1ST SIKH INFANTRY

2ND SIKH INFANTRY

3RD SIKH INFANTRY

4TH SIKH INFANTRY

GUIDES INFANTRY

1ST GWALIOR INFANTRY

2ND GWALIOR INFANTRY

3RD GWALIOR INFANTRY

4TH GWALIOR INFANTRY

5TH GWALIOR INFANTRY

6TH GWALIOR INFANTRY

7TH GWALIOR INFANTRY

JODHPUR CONTINGENT

MIDNAPUR-                   BENGAL (1)

                                          BENGAL (2)

                                          BENGAL(3)

                                           BENGAL(4)

                                           BENGAL(5)

                                           BENGAL(6)

                                          BENGAL (7)

                                           BENGAL(8)     

BENARES                       BENARES(1)

ALLAHABAD                      DOAB (1)

SECRORA                            OUDH (1)

SECRORA/BAHRAICH      OUDH(2)

GONDA                                OUDH (3)

LUCKNOW                          OUDH (4)

DARIABAD                          OUDH (5)

FAIZABAD                           OUDH(6)

LUCKNOW                          OUDH(7)

SULTANPUR                       OUDH (8)

FAIZABAD                          OUDH(9)

MULLAON                          OUDH(10)

KUMAON          ROHAILKHAND(1)

DERA DUN                          DOAB (1)

HANSI                DELHI REGION(1)

SIMLA AREA                   PUNJAB(1)

SHABQADAR                  PUNJAB (2)

                                           PUNJAB(3)

                                           PUNJAB(4)

                                           PUNJAB(5)

                                           PUNJAB(6)

                                           PUNJAB(7)

                                           PUNJAB(8)

                                           PUNJAB(9)

                                          PUNJAB(10)

                                          PUNJAB(11)

                                          PUNJAB(12)

ETAWAH                              DOAB(2)

GWALIOR         CENTRAL INDIA(1)  

GWALIOR/SIPRI CENTRAL INDIA(2)

GOONAH            CENTRAL INDIA(3)

AUGUR               CENTRAL INDIA(4)

LALITPUR            CENTRAL INDIA( 5 )

NEEMUCH                   RAJPUTANA(1)

ERINPURA                  RAJPUTANA (2)

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

PART LOYAL/PART REBEL

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

REBELLED/PART LOYAL

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY

 

 

SUMMARY OF THE ABOVE

PUNJAB

DELHI

DOAB

AGRA

OUDH&

ROHAIL

KHAND

BENARES

BIHAR

BENGAL

CENTRAL

INDIA

RAJPUTANA

NUSSEEREE BATTALION

KALAT I GHILZAI REGT

1ST PUNJAB INFANTRY

2ND PUNJAB INFANTRY

3RD PUNJAB INFANTRY

4TH PUNJAB INFANTRY

5TH PUNJAB INFANTRY

1ST SIKH INFANTRY

2ND SIKH INFANTRY

3RD SIKH INFANTRY

4TH SIKH INFANTRY

GUIDES INFANTRY

 

HARIANA

LIGHT INFANTRY

SIRMOOR BATTALION

FEROZPUR REGIMENT

KUMAON BATTALION

1ST OUDH IRREGULAR INF

2ND OUDH IRREGULAR INF

3RD OUDH IRREGULAR INF

4TH

OUDH IRREGULAR INF

5TH

OUDH IRREGULAR INF

6TH

OUDH IRREGULAR INF

7TH OUDH IRREGULAR INF

8TH OUDH IRREGULAR INF

9TH OUDH IRREGULAR INF

10TH OUDH IRREGULAR INF

 

LUDHIANA REGIMENT

 

SHEKHAWATEE

1ST SYLHET INF

2ND SYLHET INF

1ST ASSAM INF

2ND ASSAM INF

CALCUTTA NATIVE  MILITIA

CUTTACK LEGION

RAMGARH LIGHT INFANTRY

1ST

GWALIOR

INFANTRY

2ND GWALIOR INFANTRY

3RD GWALIOR INFANTRY

4TH GWALIOR INFANTRY

5TH GWALIOR INFANTRY

6TH GWALIOR INFANTRY

7TH GWALIOR INFANTRY

JODHPUR CONTINGENT

 

 

12

UNITS

1

UNIT

2

UNITS

11

UNIT

1

UNIT

8

UNITS

8

UNITS

STEP THREE

CAVALRY UNITS REGULAR AND IRREGULAR

SERNO

UNIT

PRE REBELLION LOCATION

BEHAVIOUR IN 1857

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

1st LIGHT CAVALRY

2ND LIGHT CAVALRY

3RD LIGHT CAVALRY

4TH LIGHT CAVALRY

5TH LIGHT CAVALRY

6TH LIGHT CAVALRY

7TH LIGHT CAVALRY

8TH LIGHT CAVALRY

9TH LIGHT CAVALRY

10TH LIGHT CAVALRY

1ST IRREGULAR CAVALRY

2ND IRREGULAR CAVALRY

3RD IRREGULAR CAVALRY

4TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

5TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

6TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

7TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

8TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

9TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

10TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

11TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

12TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

13TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

14TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

15TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

16TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

17TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

18TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

1ST OUDH IRREGULAR CAV

2ND OUDH IRREGULAR CAV

3RD OUDH IRREGULAR CAV

1ST GWALIOR CAVALRY

2ND GWALIOR CAVALRY

1ST PUNJAB CAVALRY

2ND PUNJAB CAVALRY

3RD PUNJAB CAVALRY

4TH PUNJAB CAVALRY

5TH PUNJAB CAVALRY

GUIDES

MHOW                   CENTRAL INDIA (1)

CAWNPORE                             DOAB(1)

MEERUT                           DOAB (2)

AMBALA                         PUNJAB (1)

PESHAWAR                     PUNJAB (2)

JULLUNDHUR                PUNJAB (3)

LUCKNOW                      OUDH (1)

LAHORE                            PUNJAB (4)

SIALKOT                           PUNJAB (5)

FEROZPUR                       PUNJAB(6)

MULTAN                          PUNJAB (7)

GURDASPUR                   PUNJAB (8)

SAUGOR             CENTRAL INDIA (2)

HANSI/HISSAR        DELHI REGION(1)

ROHNEE                        BENGAL (1)

JACOBABAD                      SINDH (1)

PESHAWAR                    PUNJAB(9)

BAREILLY              ROHAILKHAND (1)

HOSHIARPUR                           PUNJAB (10)

                                             PUNJAB (11)

BERHAMPUR               BENGAL (2)

SEGOWLEE                 BIHAR (1)

BENARES                        BENARES (1)

NOWGONG/JHANSICENTRALINDIA   (3)

SULTANPUR ETC             OUDH (2)

                                                  PUNJAB (12)

SHAMSABAD                          PUNJAB (13)

PESHAWAR                            PUNJAB (14)

SECRORA                                OUDH (3)

LUCKNOW                                  OUDH (4)

PERTABGARH/ALLAHABAD   OUDH (5)

SIPRI                 CENTRAL INDIA (4)

AUGUR                CENTRAL INDIA (5)

                                                 PUNJAB(15)

                                                 PUNJAB(16)

                                                 PUNJAB(17)

                                                 PUNJAB(18)

                                                 PUNJAB(19)

                                                 PUNJAB(20)

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

DISBANDED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

DISBANDED

REBELLED-DESTROYED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

PART REBELLED/LOYAL

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL BUT DISARMED

DISBANDED

DISBANDED/DESTROYED

DISBANDED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

DISBANDED/PART REBELLED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

DISBANDED

LOYAL BUT DISARMED

LOYAL BUT DISARMED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

SUCCESSFULLY REBELLED

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

LOYAL TO THE BRITISH

  

SUMMARY OF THE ABOVE

PUNJAB

DELHI

DOAB

AGRA

OUDH &

ROHAIL

KHAND

BENARES

BIHAR

BENGAL

CENTRAL

INDIA

RAJPUTANA

 

4TH LIGHT CAVALRY

5TH LIGHT CAVALRY

6TH LIGHT CAVALRY

8TH LIGHT CAVALRY

9TH LIGHT CAVALRY

10TH LIGHT CAVALRY

1ST IRREGULAR CAVALRY

2ND IRREGULAR CAVALRY

7TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

9TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

10TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

16TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

17TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

18TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

1ST PUNJAB CAVALRY

2ND PUNJAB CAVALRY

3RD PUNJAB CAVALRY

4TH PUNJAB CAVALRY

5TH PUNJAB CAVALRY

GUIDES

CAVALRY

4TH IRREGULAR

CAVALRY

2ND LIGHT

CAVALRY

3RD LIGHT CAVALRY

7TH LIGHT CAVALRY

8TH IRREGULAR

CAVALRY

15TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

1ST OUDH IRREGULAR CAV

2ND OUDH IRREGULAR CAV

3RD OUDH IRREGULAR CAV

 

13TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

5TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

11TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

12TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

 

1st LIGHT CAVALRY

3RD

IRREGULAR

CAVALRY

14TH IRREGULAR CAVALRY

1ST GWALIOR CAVALRY

2ND GWALIOR CAVALRY

20

UNITS

1

UNIT

2

UNITS

6 

UNITS

1

UNIT

3

 UNITS

5

UNITS

STEP FOUR

ORIGINAL

AREA FROM WHERE UNITS CAME

TOTAL

SUCCESSFULLY

REBELLED

FOUGHT AT

DELHI

FOUGHT AT

LUCKNOW

FOUGHT AT

CAWNPORE

FOUGHT

UNDER GEN TANTIA AT

KALPI

FOUGHT AT

BANDA

BENGAL BIHAR & ORRISSA

5TH IC 11TH IC 12TH IC

7 NI   8 NI  40 NI

32 NI (PART)

NIL

12TH IRR CAV

7 NI   8 NI

40 NI

NIL

11 IC

 

5 IC

32 NI (PART)

BENARES

REGION

17 NI

LUDHIANA(PART)

NIL

17 NI

NIL

NIL

NIL

OUDH & ROHAIL

KHAND

7TH LC,  8TH IC,  15TH IC ,1ST OIC,  2ND OIC

3RD OIC,  13 NI (PART), 18 NI, 22 NI ,28 NI , 29 NI,41 NI  ,48 NI (PART), 68 NI  ,71 NI (PART),1ST OII , 2ND OII ,3RD OII,4TH OII , 5TH OII  ,6TH OII,7TH OII  ,8TH OII,   9TH OII,10TH OII.

1ST LC

3RD LC

6TH LC

10TH LC

8TH IC

41 NI

18 NI

28 NI

29 NI

7TH LC , 15TH IC ,

1ST OIC , 2ND OIC ,3RD OIC , 13 NI

,22 NI , 48 NI, 71 NI  , 1ST OII,2ND OII ,  3RD OII ,4TH OII ,  5TH OII,6TH OII , 7TH OII,8TH OII ,  9TH OII ,10TH OII.

 

NIL

NIL

NIL

DOAB & AGRA

2 LC , 3 LC ,1 NI   ,  10 NI   , 53 NI ,6 NI   ,  11 NI    ,56 NI ,9 NI   ,  20 NI .

3 LC , 9 NI   ,11 NI 20 NI

NIL

2ND LC ,    1 NI, 6 NI ,   53 NI ,56 NI   6TH GI.

 

 

PUNJAB

4 LC (PART)

10 LC

3 NI

36 NI

45 NI

60 NI (PART)

61 NI

4 LC

10 LC

3 NI

36 NI

45 NI

60 NI

61 NI

 

NIL

 

 

CENTRAL INDIA & RAJPUTANA

1st LC , 3RD IC ,14TH IC  1ST GC ,2ND GC, 12 NI , 15 NI, 23 NI  ,42 NI (PART),50 NI,52 NI  , 30 NI ,72 NI ,1ST GI ,2ND GI ,3RD GI ,4TH G1 ,5TH G1 , 6TH G1 ,7TH G1

JODHPUR CONTINGENT

1 LC , 14 IC ,12 NI, 15 NI,23 NI  ,42 NI

,30 NI,72 NI ,7TH GI

NIL

NIL

3RD IC  , 1ST GC , 2ND GC , 42 NI, 1 GI , 2ND GI , 3RD GI , 4TH GI , 5TH GI , 6TH GI.

50 NI

52 NI

DELHI REGION

38 NI ,54 NI ,74 NI ,HARIANA LI

4 IC.

38 NI

54 NI

74 NI

4 IC

HARIANA LT INF

NIL

NIL

NIL

NIL

 

TOTAL

 

71.5 UNITS

 

29 UNITS

 

22.5 UNITS

 

6 UNITS

 

10 UNITS

 

3.5 UNITS

NOTE;--10 NI REBELLED SUCCESSFULLY AT FATEHGARH BUT DISPERSED TO HOME VILLAGES AFTER LOOTING !

 

CONCLUSION

In 1857 a class of common soldiers almost 99% Hindustani by ethnicity, five sixth Hindu (Hindu Rajput and Brahman), one sixth Muslim (Hindustani Muslims and Ranghars) based on internal motivation consolidated as a result of some two decades of various experiences, resorted to an armed insurrection aimed at destroying a European Company which was exploiting India as a whole for some 100 years. They were joined by some dispossessed feudals and princes a majority of whom were motivated by external motivation and a minority by internal motivation. The populace in some regions like Delhi and Oudh joined the rebels.

The rebellion was suppressed by employment of the largest force to date of pure British origin used outside Britain assisted by native troops from Punjab NWFP Madras and Bombay. The Enfield Rifle played a decisive role in the British success. The Afghan docility in staying loyal to the British also played a decisive role. The same Afghans who were very keenly visiting Delhi between 1739 and 1761 to loot a Muslim city abdicated the role of sacking and looting the same Muslim city of Delhi to a force comprising British, Punjabi Muslim, Pathan, Sikh and Gurkha troops!

The progressive and egalitarian policy of Lord Dalhousie to destroy feudalism in India was absolutely reversed by the British. Instead a policy of active alliance and collaboration with the feudals was adopted to jointly exploit and bugger the people of India! A deliberate policy of “Divide and Rule” which paid rich dividends from 1857 till 1947! A class of docile business professional and landed interest was created. These docile but clever lawyers, landlords and other professionals prospered in the period between 1858 and 1947. They manipulated the common man by emotional slogans to join the Indian Army in WW one and WW two and used heaps of corpses of dead Indian soldiers at Ypres Kutalamara and Burma as stepping stones in negotiations with the British about sharing political power in the period 1919-47! Today they want us to believe that there was freedom struggle. But those freedom fighters did not belong either to the Congress or Muslim League. The soldiers of 1857, the Ghadrites of 1918-19, the Bengalis of modern Bengal, and all Indian soldiers who died in WW one and WW two fighting ironically for the British were the real freedom fighters! These leaders constantly downplay the naval rebellion of 1946 and prefer to talk about their parties grand role!

The British transfer of power was not a sudden British retreat under Indian freedom fighters’ pressure but a long pre-meditated process started in 1909 but accelerated by two world wars. They departed gracefully satisfied that both the countries would be ruled by a class created by the British. Their graceful departure was followed by a disgraceful genocide precipitated equally by Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs for the sake of thrill and loot justified erroneously in the name of religious fervour.

The populace of Indo-Pak had voted for the Congress or the League motivated by vague hopes, unrealistic expectations and impractical ideals! The new rulers were little different from Aurangzeb or Ranjit Singh or any other tyrant. A non-Muslim government at Delhi did not save the Sikhs from genocide which they were fearing had Punjab not been divided into East and West Punjab! Similarly the Baloch soon discovered that Jacob Outram or Sandeman were much better intellectually, administratively and humanly than Ayub, Tikka or Bhutto! The Bengali Muslims were soon to discover that their new masters were also from the overseas just like the British! Before 1947 the Muslims, the Hindus who were the vast majority would soon amend the constitution so that they could constitutionally justify the exploitation and oppression in Muslim majority provinces! The audience were told that if India was not divided the Hindus would use a Hindu controlled and dominated army to discipline the Muslim provinces! Also the Baloch, the Sindhis and the Bengalis were to discover in the post-1947 scenario that merely having a Muslim Federal Government is no guarantee that they would not be persecuted at will and whim!

Who were the Muslims or the Sikhs or even the Hindus fighting against, if they were fighting against at all before 1947? The history of Indo-Pak in the period between 1857 to 1947 is a history of manipulation of the ordinary man galvanised by hollow, meaningless slogans based on religion etc, by a small class of men who prospered under the British rule whether as landlords or as businessmen or lawyers or soldiers or civil servants. They were playing a game whose rules were made by the British! The only sacrifice if it can be called one was made by the common Indian soldier fighting in two world wars for the British. Most of these enlisted by virtue of efforts of feudals and civil servants in pre-1947 Punjab. The prime motive of the unionist landlord who was the principal British recruiting agent was sycophancy and personal benefit. The peasant who they manipulated was thus mere common fodder in a war fought with the Germans or Japanese against whom he had no reason to fight!

The fault of this whole ridiculous and highly ironic state of affairs lies with the British. They tried to view India as one country motivated by pure administrative and political convenience. India was a mere geographical expression but the British for some time gave it the appearance of being one country. In 1947 they divided India in an illogical manner on erroneous conceptual lines. In the process they left behind two illogical Federal structures who ruled the various ethnic groups with the help of two mercenary armies which had been created by the British basically for internal security or internal oppression! The ship of two nation theory which did not exist in 1857 was hastily created in 1940! The high sounding theories about Akhand Bharat were also dismantled in the killing fields of Kashmir Indian Punjab and in Nagaland! Three purposeless wars were fought by two highly unprofessional armies whose maintenance expenses have firmly ensured that the Indo- Pak region remains the bastion of poverty, ignorance and instability.

Behind the five decade farce of this smoke screen of conflict the common man is the main victim! The Bengalis of East Bengal were intellectually honest enough to struggle to create an ethnic nation state. Thank God their doubts about ethnicity and ideology were resolved in 1971!

The rest of the region is a hostage of ambitious politicians, industrialists and generals who want the whole world to believe that they are fighting for a just cause! Those who were fighting for a just cause died long time back in 1857 or 1958 or in 1919! The rest is fiction!

Sycophancy, Servility and Narrow Self-Interest won in 1857.  As far as all post-1857 successful Indians were concerned, Sons and Grandsons of Opportunists were the later leaders of all Indians!

De Omnibus Dubitandum

END NOTES

629Page-4-The Punjab under Imperialism-1885-1947-Imran Ali-Oxford University Press India- New Delhi-1989.
630Page-442-Philip Mason-Op Cit.
631Already referred to. Page-314-Philip Mason-Op Cit.
632Page-10-Report of the Special Commission appointed by His Excellency the Governor General in Council to Inquire into the Organisaiton and Expenditure of the Army in India-Government Printing Press-Simla-1879.
633Page-65- History of the Great War-Based on Official Documents-The Campaign in Mesopotamia-1914-1918-Volume One-Brigadier General F.J Moberly-Printed and Published by His Majesty's Stationery Office-London first in 1923-Reprinted H.M.S.O London-1927 634 Pages-52, 186 & 187-Ibid.
635Page-45-The Frontier Scouts-C.C Trench-Op Cit.

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