SPECIAL REPORT                                                                                                                                           FROM THE INTERNET

T 80U

From the INTERNET DJ takes out special features and details about the RUSSIAN T-80U tank

The T-80 main battle tank has been in production since the late 1970's. Current production versions include the T-80U for general use in infantry and tank units and the T-80UK command tank. It is manufactured by Transmash of Omsk.


The T-80U carries the 9M119 Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile system which is fired from the main gun. The range of the missile is 100 - 4,000 m and takes 11.7sec to reach maximum range. The system is intended to engage tanks fitted with ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour) as well as low-flying air targets such as helicopters, at a range of up to 5 km. The missile system fires either the 9M119 or 9M119M missiles which have semi-automatic laser beamriding guidance and a hollow charge warhead. Missile weight is 23.4 kg.

The tank is fitted with a 125 mm 2A46M-1 automatic smoothbore gun with thermal sleeve which can fire between 6 and 8 rounds per minute. Loading is hydromechanical with a 28 round carousel container. 45 rounds are carried. Elevation limits of the gun are -5 to+15 degrees. The gun fires separate loading projectiles which have semi-combustible cartridge case and sabot. Ammunition can be AP (Armour Piercing), APDS (Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot), HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) and HE-FRAG (High Explosive-Fragmentation).

Armament also includes a 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun and a 12.7 mm Utes (NSVT-12.7) air defence machine gun.


The tank fire control system is the 1A42 which includes 1V517 ballistic computer, two-axis electrohydraulic weapon stabiliser, rangefinder sight stabilised in two axes as well as a GPK-59 hydro-semicompass azimuth indicator and an azimuth indicator for the turret rotation. This system permits firing on the move.

The gunner has the 1G46 day sight and also an infrared sight.


The tank is protected by a combination of explosive reactive armour (ERA) at the front and gill type armour panels elsewhere. Other countermeasures include quieter running, gas-turbine engine which exhausts smokeless gases, improved heat insulation of roof and hatches, ventilation of the engine-transmission system, cooling system, smoke-laying system and smoke discharging system.

The T-80U's gas turbine engine is the GTD-1250 which produces 920 kW (1250 hp). The GTD-1250 is a three shaft engine with two cascades of turbocompression. There is also an independent GTA-18 auxiliary power unit for use when the tank is stationary.

The tank has a planetary power transmission with hydraulic servo-system for increased mobility. The track and suspension system is fitted with RMSh track and rubber-tyred road wheels, torsion bar suspension with hydraulic telescopic double-acting shock absorbers.

Maximum speed of the vehicle is 70 km/hour. NBC protection, automatic firefighting, mine-clearing and self-entrenching equipment are fitted.


The T-80UK tank is designed to provide command and control capability for field commanders and enable communications with superior command. It is similar to the T-80U in terms of armament and equipment but has a number of additional features.

It is fitted with the Shtora-1 countermeasures suite also fitted on the T-90 tank. Shtora-1 is produced by Electronintorg of Russia. This system includes infrared jammer, laser warning system with four laser warning receivers, grenade discharging system which produces an aerosol screen and a computerised control system. Operational range against anti-tank guided weapons and fire control systems with laser rangefinders is 200 m.

The T-80UK's communications system includes UHF, and HF systems as well as intercom. The tank has a combined symmetric dipole antenna for both UHF and HF communications. This increases range when the tank is stationary - up to 40 km for the R-163-50U radio and 350 km for the R-163-50K radio. An 11 m antenna feed is mounted on the hull. There is also a UHF-4m rod antenna and a 4m HF antenna with variable beam control which gives a range up to 250 km while the tank is moving. The tank's track is designed to conduct electricity to avoid interference with the communication systems. An AB-1-P28 1 kW benzene generator is provided to power communications when the tank is stationary.

T-80UK also has a more advanced fire control system, automatic loader for the gun, built-in turret ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour), TNA-4-3 navigational aid, hydropneumatic cleaning system for vision devices.


The latest version of the T-80U being developed is the T-80UM2 which is designed to engage targets while stationary or on the move. It has a new all-welded cast steel turret with ERA (explosive reactive armour) on the hull front and turret, an automatic loading system and relocation of the ammunition to the turret bustle for improved survivability. Other improvements include a computerised fire control system, thermal imaging sights for commander and gunner, and the Arena active countermeasures system.


Crew 3
Weight 46 tons
Engine GTD three shafts with two cascades of turbocompression power turbine and GTD-1250 controlled nozzle assembly
Power 1250 hp
Transmission mechanical, planetary
Track metallic with RMSh and rubber-tyred road wheels
Suspension torsion bar
Shock absorbers hydraulic, telescopic (on 1, 2 and 6 road wheels)
Electrical equipment 22 - 29 V DC
Starter storage batteries 4
Total capacity 340 A h
Radio receive/transmit, telephone, simplex, R-173
Intercom for four men R-174
Ground pressure 0.865 kg/sq cm
Road speed unpaved 40 - 45 km/hour
paved 60 - 65 km/hour
maximum 70 km/hour
Fuel consumption for 100 km
unpaved road 460 - 790 litres
paved road 430 - 500 litres
Fuel endurance
unpaved road 335 km (main fuel tanks)
400 km (with extra fuel drums)
paved road 500 km (main fuel tanks)
600 km (with extra fuel drums)
Negotiable obstacles
gradient 32 deg
side slope 30 deg
trench 2.85 m
Fording depth
without preparation 1.2 m
with preparation 1.8 m
with OVPT snorkel 5 m
length (gun forwards) 9.66 m
length (over hull) 7 m
length of track on ground 4.3 m
width (over tracks) 3.4 m
width (over gill armour panels) 3.6 m
track 2.8 m
height (over turret roof) 2.2 m
ground clearance 451 mm
main gun  125 mm 2A46M-1 smoothbore
rate of fire 6-8 rounds/min
elevation/depression +15 to -5 deg
coaxial machine gun 7.62 mm PKT
machine gun 12.7 mm Utes (NSVT-12.7) AD
125 mm 2A46M-1 gun 45 rounds
7.62 mm machine gun 1250 cartridges
12.7 mm AD machine gun 500 cartridges
Combat rate of fire of 125 mm gun: 4 rounds/min
Maximum range 4,000 m with HE-FRAG with time and percussion fuzes
Gun 30 rounds
PKT machine gun 750 cartridges
UHF R-163-50U radio
Range under light cross-country terrain
with rod antenna 20 km
Range with combined antenna 40 km
Frequency 30 - 80 MHz
10 preset frequencies
R-163UP radio UHF with frequency modulation, transmit/receive mode of operation by telephone
frequency bands 10
Range under light cross-country terrain
with rod antenna 10 km
R-163-50K radio receive/transmit mode, telephone/telegraph with amplitude
frequency 2 - 30 MHz, 16 preset frequencies
Range under light cross-country terrain
with rod antenna 20 - 50 km
Range with combined antenna 350 km