|SPECIAL REPORT FROM THE INTERNET|
The T-80 main battle tank has been in production since the late 1970's. Current production versions include the T-80U for general use in infantry and tank units and the T-80UK command tank. It is manufactured by Transmash of Omsk.
The T-80U carries the 9M119 Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile system which is fired from the main gun. The range of the missile is 100 - 4,000 m and takes 11.7sec to reach maximum range. The system is intended to engage tanks fitted with ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour) as well as low-flying air targets such as helicopters, at a range of up to 5 km. The missile system fires either the 9M119 or 9M119M missiles which have semi-automatic laser beamriding guidance and a hollow charge warhead. Missile weight is 23.4 kg.
The tank is fitted with a 125 mm 2A46M-1 automatic smoothbore gun with thermal sleeve which can fire between 6 and 8 rounds per minute. Loading is hydromechanical with a 28 round carousel container. 45 rounds are carried. Elevation limits of the gun are -5 to+15 degrees. The gun fires separate loading projectiles which have semi-combustible cartridge case and sabot. Ammunition can be AP (Armour Piercing), APDS (Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot), HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) and HE-FRAG (High Explosive-Fragmentation).
Armament also includes a 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun and a 12.7 mm Utes (NSVT-12.7) air defence machine gun.
The tank fire control system is the 1A42 which includes 1V517 ballistic computer, two-axis electrohydraulic weapon stabiliser, rangefinder sight stabilised in two axes as well as a GPK-59 hydro-semicompass azimuth indicator and an azimuth indicator for the turret rotation. This system permits firing on the move.
The gunner has the 1G46 day sight and also an infrared sight.
The tank is protected by a combination of explosive reactive armour (ERA) at the front and gill type armour panels elsewhere. Other countermeasures include quieter running, gas-turbine engine which exhausts smokeless gases, improved heat insulation of roof and hatches, ventilation of the engine-transmission system, cooling system, smoke-laying system and smoke discharging system.
The T-80U's gas turbine engine is the GTD-1250 which produces 920 kW (1250 hp). The GTD-1250 is a three shaft engine with two cascades of turbocompression. There is also an independent GTA-18 auxiliary power unit for use when the tank is stationary.
The tank has a planetary power transmission with hydraulic servo-system for increased mobility. The track and suspension system is fitted with RMSh track and rubber-tyred road wheels, torsion bar suspension with hydraulic telescopic double-acting shock absorbers.
Maximum speed of the vehicle is 70 km/hour. NBC protection, automatic firefighting, mine-clearing and self-entrenching equipment are fitted.
T-80UK COMMAND TANK
The T-80UK tank is designed to provide command and control capability for field commanders and enable communications with superior command. It is similar to the T-80U in terms of armament and equipment but has a number of additional features.
It is fitted with the Shtora-1 countermeasures suite also fitted on the T-90 tank. Shtora-1 is produced by Electronintorg of Russia. This system includes infrared jammer, laser warning system with four laser warning receivers, grenade discharging system which produces an aerosol screen and a computerised control system. Operational range against anti-tank guided weapons and fire control systems with laser rangefinders is 200 m.
The T-80UK's communications system includes UHF, and HF systems as well as intercom. The tank has a combined symmetric dipole antenna for both UHF and HF communications. This increases range when the tank is stationary - up to 40 km for the R-163-50U radio and 350 km for the R-163-50K radio. An 11 m antenna feed is mounted on the hull. There is also a UHF-4m rod antenna and a 4m HF antenna with variable beam control which gives a range up to 250 km while the tank is moving. The tank's track is designed to conduct electricity to avoid interference with the communication systems. An AB-1-P28 1 kW benzene generator is provided to power communications when the tank is stationary.
T-80UK also has a more advanced fire control system, automatic loader for the gun, built-in turret ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour), TNA-4-3 navigational aid, hydropneumatic cleaning system for vision devices.
The latest version of the T-80U being developed is the T-80UM2 which is designed to engage targets while stationary or on the move. It has a new all-welded cast steel turret with ERA (explosive reactive armour) on the hull front and turret, an automatic loading system and relocation of the ammunition to the turret bustle for improved survivability. Other improvements include a computerised fire control system, thermal imaging sights for commander and gunner, and the Arena active countermeasures system.